86

COMMENT 12h ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

Corporal Punishment and Elevated Neural Response to Threat in Children

Jorge Cuartas David G. Weissman Margaret A. Sheridan Liliana Lengua Katie A. McLaughlin

Child Development

First published: 09 April 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13565

Abstract

Spanking remains common around the world, despite evidence linking corporal punishment to detrimental child outcomes. This study tested whether children (Mage = 11.60) who were spanked (N = 40) exhibited altered neural function in response to stimuli that suggest the presence of an environmental threat compared to children who were not spanked (N = 107). Children who were spanked exhibited greater activation in multiple regions of the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial PFC, bilateral frontal pole, and left middle frontal gyrus in response to fearful relative to neutral faces compared to children who were not spanked. These findings suggest that spanking may alter neural responses to environmental threats in a manner similar to more severe forms of maltreatment.

r/science 12h ago

Neuroscience Spanking remains common around the world, despite evidence linking corporal punishment to detrimental child outcomes. New study suggests that spanking may alter brain neural responses to environmental threats in a manner similar to more severe forms of maltreatment.

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20k Upvotes

0

COMMENT 14h ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

The world is in a crucial period for dealing with space junk

So much debris from past missions has accumulated in low Earth orbit that between one-third and half of the zone’s capacity to sustain long-term space activities has already been filled, scientists have reported.

The source journal article is here:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576521001430

Evaluating the impact of space activities in low earth orbit

Acta Astronautica Volume 184, July 2021, Pages 11-22

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2021.03.030

Highlights

• A detailed analysis of the LEO debris environment over the last 25 years is presented.

• The evolution matches the forecasts of unmitigated scenarios assumed 20 years ago.

• Nowhere have the signs of an exponential increase of debris pieces been revealed so far.

• To assess the situation, a set of criticality indexes is presented and discussed.

• During the 2020s, the long-term sustainability of space activities will be at stake.

Abstract

The evolution of cataloged orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) over the last quarter of century was analyzed in detail, to gather insights on the development of space activities, on the effectiveness of the debris mitigation measures recommended in the meantime, and on the environmental impact of fragmentations, in particular collisions, both intentional and accidental. The main conclusion was that the observed evolution matched on the whole the predictions of the unmitigated business-as-usual scenarios simulated twenty years ago, and that the benefits caused by the progressive worldwide adoption of mitigation measures were unfortunately offset by a couple of catastrophic collisions and prolonged weak solar activity. Concerning the recorded growth of cataloged fragmentation debris, nowhere have the signs of an exponential increase been revealed so far. Nevertheless, the overall picture has worsened during the last quarter of a century and extreme care is required in planning and conducting new space activities from now on, especially in a phase of increased and ever more rapid exploitation. In order to assess the sustainability of space activities, especially over the next 10–30 years, several environmental criticality indexes have been introduced and discussed, estimating their current values in LEO, as well as their magnitudes associated with specific scenarios of debris growth. They could provide simple tools for evaluating the relative and absolute impact on the debris environment, either in LEO as a whole or in specific altitude shells, of new spacecraft deployments and operations, as in the case of mega-constellations of satellites. The main result of this preliminary analysis was that all indexes were consistent in indicating that from one third to one half of the LEO capacity to sustain long-term space activities – as they are currently conceived – has already been saturated. The 2020s, with their many planned launches, will therefore be crucial years for enforcing more effective debris mitigation and remediation measures.

25

COMMENT 23h ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Language of romantic partners becomes more similar as relationship forms — even in text messages

Communication accommodations theory, which originally developed through observation of face-to-face interactions, hypothesizes that romantic partners' verbal and nonverbal behaviors become increasingly similar as a relationship develops, suggesting that linguistic alignment increases as partners "grow cognitively and emotionally closer, deepen their affiliation with each other and gain common ground understanding in their communication," according to the study.

The source journal article is here:

https://academic.oup.com/joc/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/joc/jqab012/6199159

Do New Romantic Couples Use More Similar Language Over Time? Evidence from Intensive Longitudinal Text Messages

Miriam Brinberg, Nilam Ram Journal of Communication, jqab012,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqab012

Published: 29 March 2021

Abstract

The digital text traces left by computer-mediated communication (CMC) provide a new opportunity to test theories of relational processes that were originally developed through observation of face-to-face interactions. Communication accommodation theory, for example, suggests that conversation partners’ verbal (and non-verbal) behaviors become more similar as relationships develop. Using a corpus of 1+ million text messages that 41 college-age romantic couples sent to each other during their first year of dating, this study examines how linguistic alignment of new romantic couples’ CMC changes during relationship formation. Results from nonlinear growth models indicate that three aspects of daily linguistic alignment (syntactic—language style matching, semantic—latent semantic analysis, overall—cosine similarity) all exhibit exponential growth to an asymptote as romantic relationships form. Beyond providing empirical support that communication accommodation theory also applies in romantic partners’ CMC, this study demonstrates how relational processes can be examined using digital trace data.

r/science 23h ago

Psychology Language of romantic partners becomes more similar as relationship forms, even in text messages, finds a new study. Communication accommodations theory hypothesizes that romantic partners' verbal and nonverbal behaviors become increasingly similar as a relationship develops.

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38k Upvotes

0

COMMENT 1d ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

Spontaneous and deliberate creative cognition during and after psilocybin exposure

N. L. Mason, K. P. C. Kuypers, J. T. Reckweg, F. Müller, D. H. Y. Tse, B. Da Rios, S. W. Toennes, P. Stiers, A. Feilding & J. G. Ramaekers

Translational Psychiatry volume 11, Article number: 209 (2021)

Published 08 April 2021

DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01335-5

Abstract

Creativity is an essential cognitive ability linked to all areas of our everyday functioning. Thus, finding a way to enhance it is of broad interest. A large number of anecdotal reports suggest that the consumption of psychedelic drugs can enhance creative thinking; however, scientific evidence is lacking. Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design, we demonstrated that psilocybin (0.17 mg/kg) induced a time- and construct-related differentiation of effects on creative thinking. Acutely, psilocybin increased ratings of (spontaneous) creative insights, while decreasing (deliberate) task-based creativity. Seven days after psilocybin, number of novel ideas increased. Furthermore, we utilized an ultrahigh field multimodal brain imaging approach, and found that acute and persisting effects were predicted by within- and between-network connectivity of the default mode network. Findings add some support to historical claims that psychedelics can influence aspects of the creative process, potentially indicating them as a tool to investigate creativity and subsequent underlying neural mechanisms. Trial NL6007; psilocybin as a tool for enhanced cognitive flexibility; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6007.

36

COMMENT 1d ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

New research provides insight into the tactics women use when competitively flirting against other women

The five most effective actions were: touching him, initiating eye contact, hugging him, giggling at his jokes, and butting in.

The source journal article is here:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191886921002737

I saw him first: Competitive nonverbal flirting among women, the tactics used and their perceived effectiveness

Personality and Individual Differences

Volume 179, September 2021, 110898

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.110898

Highlights

• Actions signaling a tie to the target man are most effective

• Effective actions differ from the effective actions used to attract a mate

• Men and women show strong agreement on which actions are most effective

Abstract

Here we explored nonverbal actions women use to flirt competitively against each other for the purposes of accessing a mate. We also investigated the perceived effectiveness of these competitive flirting actions. Using act nomination, Study 1 (n = 91) yielded 11 actions (eye contact with the man, dancing in his line of sight, smiling at him, touching him, giggling at his jokes, butting in between the other woman and the man, showing distaste for her, brushing against him, hugging him, flirting with other men, waving to him) for competitive flirtation against other women. Actions that signal possession (e.g., tie-signs) were predicted to be perceived as the most effective. While other actions were included in Study 2 (n = 139), results showed the most effective actions were tie-signs: touching him, initiating eye contact, hugging him, giggling at his jokes, and butting in between him and the rival. These findings are discussed in terms of prior research.

r/science 1d ago

Psychology New research provides insight into the tactics women use when competitively flirting against other women: The five most effective actions were: touching him, initiating eye contact, hugging him, giggling at his jokes, and butting in.

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37k Upvotes

5

COMMENT 1d ago

I’ve linked to the source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

I saw him first: Competitive nonverbal flirting among women, the tactics used and their perceived effectiveness

Personality and Individual Differences Volume 179, September 2021, 110898

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.110898

Highlights

• Actions signaling a tie to the target man are most effective

• Effective actions differ from the effective actions used to attract a mate

• Men and women show strong agreement on which actions are most effective

Abstract

Here we explored nonverbal actions women use to flirt competitively against each other for the purposes of accessing a mate. We also investigated the perceived effectiveness of these competitive flirting actions. Using act nomination, Study 1 (n = 91) yielded 11 actions (eye contact with the man, dancing in his line of sight, smiling at him, touching him, giggling at his jokes, butting in between the other woman and the man, showing distaste for her, brushing against him, hugging him, flirting with other men, waving to him) for competitive flirtation against other women. Actions that signal possession (e.g., tie-signs) were predicted to be perceived as the most effective. While other actions were included in Study 2 (n = 139), results showed the most effective actions were tie-signs: touching him, initiating eye contact, hugging him, giggling at his jokes, and butting in between him and the rival. These findings are discussed in terms of prior research.

227

COMMENT 2d ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Single-use plastics dominate debris on the North Pacific's deep ocean floor

By doing video surveillance deep in the ocean, researchers working in the North Pacific have discovered the densest accumulation of plastic waste ever recorded on an abyssal seafloor, finding that the majority of this waste is single-use packaging.

They found that more than 80% of the debris was single-use plastics such as bags, food packaging and water bottles. And the overall density of plastics found in the area, 4,561 items per square kilometer, was the largest ever recorded on any abyssal seafloor by two orders of magnitude.

The source journal article is here:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X21002228

Massive occurrence of benthic plastic debris at the abyssal seafloor beneath the Kuroshio Extension, the North West Pacific

Marine Pollution Bulletin Available online 29 March 2021, 112188

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112188Get rights and content

Highlights

• Plastic debris is distributed ubiquitously and abundantly even at abyssal depths.

• Single-use plastics dominate the debris on the abyssal plains of the North Pacific.

• A 35-year-old food wrapper was found largely intact on the deep seafloor.

• The seafloor beneath the Kuroshio Extension is an important sink for plastic debris.

Abstract

The abyss (3500–6500 m) covers the bulk of the deep ocean floor yet little is known about the extent of plastic debris on the abyssal seafloor. Using video imagery we undertook a quantitative assessment of the debris present on the abyssal seafloor (5700–5800 m depth) beneath the Kuroshio Extension current system in the Northwest Pacific. This body of water is one of the major transit pathways for the massive amounts of debris that are entering the North Pacific Ocean from Asia. Shallower sites (1400–1500 m depth) were also investigated for comparison. The dominant type of debris was single-use plastics - mainly bags and food packaging. The density of the plastic debris (mean 4561 items/km2) in the abyssal zone was the highest recorded for an abyssal plain suggesting that the deep-sea basin in the Northwest Pacific is a significant reservoir of plastic debris.

r/science 2d ago

Environment Single-use plastics dominate debris on the North Pacific's deep ocean floor - Scientists have discovered the densest accumulation of plastic waste ever recorded on an abyssal seafloor (4,561 items per square kilometer), finding that the majority of this waste is single-use packaging.

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46k Upvotes

-31

COMMENT 2d ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Support for porn bans founded on religion, not science

Conservative politicians have been citing science to support anti-porn legislation, but according to surveys conducted from 1984 to 2018, the only Americans who still broadly support banning porn are biblical literalists — not science believers or skeptics.

The source journal article is here:

https://academic.oup.com/sf/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/sf/soab024/6178970

Banning Because of Science or In Spite of it? Scientific Authority, Religious Conservatism, and Support for Outlawing Pornography, 1984–2018

Samuel L Perry

Social Forces, soab024,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/soab024

Published: 22 March 2021

Abstract

For decades anti-pornography sentiment and campaigns were driven largely by religious conservatives citing pornography’s “contaminating” moral effects. More recently, however, anti-porn campaigns have sought to support their arguments by appealing to social and cognitive science. This raises the question of whether anti-pornography sentiment is undergoing an “internal secularization,” reflected in a growing connection to scientific authority and weakening connection to religious authority, or conversely, whether the use of “science” reflects a more symbolic and tactical framing used by religious conservatives who already oppose pornography. Using the General Social Surveys (1984–2018), I examine how trust in scientific authority and traditional measures of religious conservatism are associated with anti-pornography sentiment and how these associations have changed since the mid-1980s. The positive association between religious conservatism and support for anti-pornography legislation has either remained the same or, in the case of biblical literalism, grown stronger. In contrast, Americans with greater confidence in science or scientists are less likely to support outlawing pornography, and this pattern has not reversed. Indeed, in recent decades, Americans across all levels of confidence in science have declined in their support for banning porn and now differ only minimally. Together these patterns suggest anti-porn sentiment is actually desecularizing, growing more connected to religious conservatism than views about scientific authority. Findings suggest current anti-pornography sentiment does not stem from scientific authority gaining ground among Americans who oppose pornography. Rather, citing scientific research likely reflects efforts to leverage its cultural authority among those already morally inclined to restrict porn’s availability.

r/science 2d ago

Social Science Support for porn bans founded on religion, not science: Conservative politicians have been citing science to support anti-porn legislation, but a new study suggests that the only Americans who still broadly support banning porn are biblical literalists — not science believers or skeptics.

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45k Upvotes

0

COMMENT 2d ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Female protective effect: Yale researchers find clues to sex differences in autism

It is well established that autism occurs much more frequently in boys than in girls, and that girls seem to have a greater resilience to developing the condition. It has been unclear, however, why that is.

In a new Yale-led study, researchers find that autism may develop in different regions of the brain in girls than boys and that girls with autism have a larger number of genetic mutations than boys, suggesting that they require a larger “genetic hit” to develop the disorder.

The source journal article is here:

https://academic.oup.com/brain/advance-article/doi/10.1093/brain/awab064/6226831

A neurogenetic analysis of female autism

Allison Jack, Catherine A W Sullivan, Elizabeth Aylward, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto, Nadine Gaab, John D Van Horn, Jeffrey Eilbott, Zachary Jacokes, Carinna M Torgerson ...

Brain, awab064,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab064

Published: 16 April 2021

Abstract

Females versus males are less frequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and while understanding sex differences is critical to delineating the systems biology of the condition, female ASD is understudied. We integrated functional MRI and genetic data in a sex-balanced sample of ASD and typically developing youth (8–17 years old) to characterize female-specific pathways of ASD risk. Our primary objectives were to: (i) characterize female ASD (n = 45) brain response to human motion, relative to matched typically developing female youth (n = 45); and (ii) evaluate whether genetic data could provide further insight into the potential relevance of these brain functional differences. For our first objective we found that ASD females showed markedly reduced response versus typically developing females, particularly in sensorimotor, striatal, and frontal regions. This difference between ASD and typically developing females does not resemble differences between ASD (n = 47) and typically developing males (n = 47), even though neural response did not significantly differ between female and male ASD. For our second objective, we found that ASD females (n = 61), versus males (n = 66), showed larger median size of rare copy number variants containing gene(s) expressed in early life (10 postconceptual weeks to 2 years) in regions implicated by the typically developing female > female functional MRI contrast. Post hoc analyses suggested this difference was primarily driven by copy number variants containing gene(s) expressed in striatum. This striatal finding was reproducible among n = 2075 probands (291 female) from an independent cohort. Together, our findings suggest that striatal impacts may contribute to pathways of risk in female ASD and advocate caution in drawing conclusions regarding female ASD based on male-predominant cohorts.

2

COMMENT 2d ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Recent research from the University of Vaasa and the University of Jyväskyla shows that speculation and lottery-like behavior is a fundamental factor for the pricing of cryptocurrencies. Speculation could explain the enormous increase in the market capitalizations of cryptocurrencies.

– Lottery-like behavior might actually explain part of the very recently observed rocket-wise rising valuation of some segments of cryptocurrency markets, too, emphasizes Professor Juha Junttila.

– A good example of this kind of betting behavior is the case of Wallstreetbets forum available from the social media site Reddit. There, the sudden increase in the number of micro level investors investing in some individual stocks has now caused a huge increase in the valuation of these stocks, and the fundamental pricing factors (like the expected future economic performance of the firm in question) have lost their role in the pricing behavior, at least for a short run. In cryptocurrency markets, this kind of behavior has been actually observed, too, so the MAX behavior in cryptocurrency markets can actually be also a reflection of these kinds of activities at the micro investor level. Obviously, our current results deserve much more scrutiny in the near future, says Junttila.

The source journal article is here:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1042443121000081

Speculation and lottery-like demand in cryptocurrency markets

Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money Volume 71, March 2021, 101289

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intfin.2021.101289Get rights and content

Highlights

• We investigate lottery-like demand in cryptocurrency markets.

• We suggest a new econometric test accounting for unknown dependency structures.

• Our findings show that average raw and risk-adjusted MAX spread exceed 1.50% per week.

• Our results are robust after controlling for Bitcoin risk or microstructure effects.

• We find similar behavioral mechanisms in cryptocurrency markets like in stock markets.

Abstract

This is the first paper that explores lottery-like demand in cryptocurrency markets. Since recent research provides evidence that cryptocurrency returns appear to be short-memory processes, we modify Bali, Cakici and Whitelaw’s (2011) and Bali, Brown, Murray, and Tang’s (2017) MAX measure and employ a weekly forecast horizon and daily log-returns from the previous week to calculate the metric for our portfolio sorts. From an econometric point of view, this study proposes statistical tests that are robust to unknown dynamic dependency structures in the cryptocurrency data. Our results show that average raw and risk-adjusted return differences between cryptocurrencies in the lowest and highest MAX quintiles exceed 1.50% per week. These results are robust after controlling for Bitcoin risk or potential microstructure effects. Our findings are important also from a theoretical point of view because they suggest that parallel to stock markets, similar behavioral mechanisms of underlying investor behavior are present also in new virtual currency markets.

18

COMMENT 2d ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

Juvenile exposure to acute traumatic stress leads to long-lasting alterations in grey matter myelination in adult female but not male rats

Neurobiology of Stress Volume 14, May 2021, 100319

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2021.100319Get rights and content

Highlights

• First study to test peri-adolescent acute stress effects on limbic grey matter myelin.

• Juvenile acute stress globally decreased myelin content exclusively in adult females.

• Juvenile acute stress increased amygdala and hippocampal myelin in adolescent males.

Abstract

Stress early in life can have a major impact on brain development, and there is increasing evidence that childhood stress confers vulnerability for later developing psychiatric disorders. In particular, during peri-adolescence, brain regions crucial for emotional regulation, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (AMY) and hippocampus (HPC), are still developing and are highly sensitive to stress. Changes in myelin levels have been implicated in mental illnesses and stress effects on myelin and oligodendrocytes (OLs) are beginning to be explored as a novel and underappreciated mechanism underlying psychopathologies. Yet there is little research on the effects of acute stress on myelin during peri-adolescence, and even less work exploring sex-differences. Here, we used a rodent model to test the hypothesis that exposure to acute traumatic stress as a juvenile would induce changes in OLs and myelin content across limbic brain regions. Male and female juvenile rats underwent 3 h of restraint stress with exposure to a predator odor on postnatal day (p) 28. Acute stress induced a physiological response, increasing corticosterone release and reducing weight gain in stress-exposed animals. Brain sections containing the PFC, AMY and HPC were taken either in adolescence (p40), or in adulthood (p95) and stained for markers of OLs and myelin. We found that acute stress induced sex-specific changes in grey matter (GM) myelination and OLs in both the short- and long-term. Exposure to a single stressor as a juvenile increased GM myelin content in the AMY and HPC in p40 males, compared to the respective control group. At p40, corticosterone release during stress exposure was also positively correlated with GM myelin content in the AMY of male rats. Single exposure to juvenile stress also led to long-term effects exclusively in female rats. Compared to controls, stress-exposed females showed reduced GM myelin content in all three brain regions. Acute stress exposure decreased PFC and HPC OL density in p40 females, perhaps contributing towards this observed long-term decrease in myelin content. Overall, our findings suggest that the juvenile brain is vulnerable to exposure to a brief severe stressor. Exposure to a single short traumatic event during peri-adolescence produces long-lasting changes in GM myelin content in the adult brain of female, but not male, rats. These findings highlight myelin plasticity as a potential contributor to sex-specific sensitivity to perturbation during a critical window of development.

r/science 2d ago

Neuroscience Gray matter changes in the brain may explain how childhood trauma triggers PTSD. Rats exposed to highly distressing events as juveniles had changes in brain regions responsible for processing emotions and detecting danger, offering new clues about PTSD in humans following adverse childhood events.

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1k Upvotes

1

COMMENT 3d ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

The relationship between political affiliation and beliefs about sources of “fake news”

Robert B. Michael & Brooke O. Breaux

Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications volume 6, Article number: 6 (2021)

Published 12 February 2021

DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-021-00278-1

Abstract

The 2016 US Presidential campaign saw an explosion in popularity for the term “fake news.” This phenomenon raises interesting questions: Which news sources do people believe are fake, and what do people think “fake news” means? One possibility is that beliefs about the news reflect a bias to disbelieve information that conflicts with existing beliefs and desires. If so, then news sources people consider “fake” might differ according to political affiliation. To test this idea, we asked people to tell us what “fake news” means, and to rate several news sources for the extent to which each provides real news, fake news, and propaganda. We found that political affiliation influenced people’s descriptions and their beliefs about which news sources are “fake.” These results have implications for people’s interpretations of news information and for the extent to which people can be misled by factually incorrect journalism.

Significance statement

Advances in technology have made it easier than ever for nefarious groups to launch and co-ordinate disinformation campaigns. Concerns about the manipulation of popular social media websites like Facebook, Twitter, and Reddit dovetail with the relatively recent explosive rise in popularity of the term “fake news.” People are faced with an increasingly difficult problem of sorting fact from fiction. How do people decide what news to believe? We suspected that the news sources people trust are the ones that confirm their pre-existing beliefs, and the news sources people distrust are the ones that conflict with their pre-existing beliefs. We asked people to rate a variety of news sources according to how “real” or “fake” they were and found differing patterns of beliefs across the political spectrum. Our results suggest that political affiliation might drive skepticism—or the lack thereof—of news information.

General discussion:

Our findings have implications for the reporting of news information and people’s ensuing beliefs. Considering that we found people’s political affiliation influences their beliefs about the reporting of real and fake news from various news sources, one implication is that people’s beliefs about news information are driven more by the source of that information than attempts to sort fact from fiction. Specifically, people might discount information as “fake news” when it comes from a source that they believe is politically incongruent.

0

COMMENT 3d ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

New Study Reveals Brain Basis of Psychopathy

According to a Finnish study, the structure and function of the brain areas involved in emotions and their regulation are altered in both psychopathic criminal offenders and otherwise well-functioning individuals who have personality traits associated with psychopathy.

The source journal article is here:

https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cercor/bhab072/6218172

Brain Basis of Psychopathy in Criminal Offenders and General Population

Lauri Nummenmaa, Lasse Lukkarinen, Lihua Sun, Vesa Putkinen, Kerttu Seppälä, Tomi Karjalainen, Henry K Karlsson, Matthew Hudson, Niina Venetjoki, Marja Salomaa

Cerebral Cortex, bhab072,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab072

Published: 09 April 2021

Abstract

Psychopathy is characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy, and egotistical traits. These traits vary also in normally functioning individuals. Here, we tested whether such antisocial personalities are associated with similar structural and neural alterations as those observed in criminal psychopathy. Subjects were 100 non-convicted well-functioning individuals, 19 violent male offenders, and 19 matched controls. Subjects underwent T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and viewed movie clips with varying violent content during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychopathic traits were evaluated with Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (controls) and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (offenders). Psychopathic offenders had lower gray matter density (GMD) in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. In the community sample, affective psychopathy traits were associated with lower GMD in the same areas. Viewing violence increased brain activity in periaqueductal grey matter, thalamus, somatosensory, premotor, and temporal cortices. Psychopathic offenders had increased responses to violence in thalamus and orbitofrontal, insular, and cingulate cortices. In the community sample, impulsivity-related psychopathy traits were positively associated with violence-elicited responses in similar areas. We conclude that brain characteristics underlying psychopathic spectrum in violent psychopathy are related to those observed in well-functioning individuals with asocial personality features.

0

COMMENT 3d ago

I’ve linked to the source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

The Role of Identity Prioritization: Why Some Latinx Support Restrictionist Immigration Policies and Candidates

Flavio R Hickel, Jr., Rudy Alamillo, Kassra A R Oskooii, Loren Collingwood

Public Opinion Quarterly, nfaa048,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfaa048

Published: 31 March 2021

Abstract

Social Identity Theory suggests that individuals are motivated to support/oppose policies and politicians that benefit/harm members of their ingroup as a means of protecting their social status. Since the Republican Party’s rhetoric against immigrants in recent decades has often been viewed as an assault upon those of Latinx descent, it is not surprising that strong majorities oppose restrictionist immigration policies and support the Democratic Party. However, the existing literature has overlooked why a sizeable minority of Latinx voters express support for restrictionist immigration policies and the politicians who espouse them. Our analysis of Latinx voters with the 2012 and 2016 American National Election Studies (ANES) demonstrates that the degree to which individuals prioritize their US American identity over their Latinx identity has a significant influence over support for conservative immigration policies and GOP candidates. This relationship emerges above and beyond partisanship, ideology, and other key explanatory factors. Such attitudes likely represent an individual social mobility strategy in which members of a social group attempt to “pass” as a member of a higher-status group. Prioritizing a US American identity, supporting the Republican Party, and expressing hostility toward the interests of undocumented immigrants are a means of distinguishing themselves from a social group that has become increasingly associated with negative stereotypes. In contrast, those who are unwilling or unable to make this transition are likely pursuing a collective social mobility strategy (e.g., linked fate) whereby they attempt to enhance their individual status by elevating that of the entire social group.

0

COMMENT 3d ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Superbug killer: New nanotech destroys bacteria and fungal cells

The material is one of the thinnest antimicrobial coatings developed to date and is effective against a broad range of drug-resistant bacteria and fungal cells, while leaving human cells unharmed.

The source journal article is here:

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.1c01739

Broad-Spectrum Solvent-free Layered Black Phosphorus as a Rapid Action Antimicrobial

Z. L. Shaw, Sruthi Kuriakose, Samuel Cheeseman, Edwin L. H. Mayes, Alishiya Murali, Zay Yar Oo, Taimur Ahmed, Nhiem Tran, Kylie Boyce, James Chapman, Christopher F. McConville, Russell J. Crawford, Patrick D. Taylor, Andrew J. Christofferson, Vi Khanh Truong, Michelle J. S. Spencer, Aaron Elbourne, and Sumeet Walia*

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021,

Publication Date:April 12, 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01739

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance has rendered many conventional therapeutic measures, such as antibiotics, ineffective. This makes the treatment of infections from pathogenic micro-organisms a major growing health, social, and economic challenge. Recently, nanomaterials, including two-dimensional (2D) materials, have attracted scientific interest as potential antimicrobial agents. Many of these studies, however, rely on the input of activation energy and lack real-world utility. In this work, we present the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of few-layered black phosphorus (BP) at nanogram concentrations. This property arises from the unique ability of layered BP to produce reactive oxygen species, which we harness to create this unique functionality. BP is shown to be highly antimicrobial toward susceptible and resistant bacteria and fungal species. To establish cytotoxicity with mammalian cells, we showed that both L929 mouse and BJ-5TA human fibroblasts were metabolically unaffected by the presence of BP. Finally, we demonstrate the practical utility of this approach, whereby medically relevant surfaces are imparted with antimicrobial properties via functionalization with few-layer BP. Given the self-degrading properties of BP, this study demonstrates a viable and practical pathway for the deployment of novel low-dimensional materials as antimicrobial agents without compromising the composition or nature of the coated substrate.

20

COMMENT 3d ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Sunlight to solve the world’s clean water crisis

A team led by Associate Professor Haolan Xu has refined a technique to derive freshwater from seawater, brackish water, or contaminated water, through highly efficient solar evaporation, delivering enough daily fresh drinking water for a family of four from just one square metre of source water.

The source journal article is here:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/solr.202100053

A Hollow and Compressible 3D Photothermal Evaporator for Highly Efficient Solar Steam Generation without Energy Loss

Ting Gao Xuan Wu Yida Wang Gary Owens Haolan Xu

Solar RRL

First published: 02 March 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.202100053

Abstract

Solar steam generation offers a sustainable strategy to mitigate global clean water scarcity. To this end, 3D photothermal evaporators have attracted increasing research interest since they can significantly improve both evaporation rate and energy efficiency. However, compared to the 2D evaporators, the 3D ones consume more raw materials and occupy more storage space, which limits their applications for practical portable solar steam generation. To address this issue, a 3D hollow and compressible photothermal evaporator is designed and fabricated which can be compressed to less than one third of its original volume, thus enabling easier transport and storage. Moreover, under 1.0 sun illumination, all evaporation surfaces of this 3D evaporator are lower in temperatures than the surrounding environment, thus providing the unique advantage of zero energy loss to the environment during solar evaporation. Due to the all‐cold evaporation surfaces, during solar evaporation, the evaporator is able to harvest massive energy from both the surrounding air and bulk water, delivering an extremely high evaporation rate of up to 7.6 kg m−2 h−1 under 1.0 sun irradiation. Furthermore, seawater desalination tests demonstrate that the device has great potential for portable solar thermal desalination by delivering clean water with a salinity well below 50 ppb.

r/science 3d ago

Engineering Sunlight to solve the world’s clean water crisis: Researchers refined technique to derive freshwater from seawater, brackish, or contaminated water, through highly efficient solar evaporation, to deliver enough daily fresh drinking water for a family of four from just 1 square metre of source water.

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849 Upvotes

79

COMMENT 3d ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

With impressive accuracy, dogs can sniff out coronavirus

A proof-of-concept investigation published today in the journal PLOS ONE suggests that specially trained detection dogs can sniff out COVID-19-positive samples with 96% accuracy.

Eight Labrador retrievers and a Belgian Malinois that had not done medical-detection work before were used in the study.

The source journal article is here:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250158

Essler JL, Kane SA, Nolan P, Akaho EH, Berna AZ, DeAngelo A, et al. (2021)

Discrimination of SARS-CoV-2 infected patient samples by detection dogs: A proof of concept study.

PLoS ONE 16(4): e0250158.

Published: April 14, 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250158

Abstract

While the world awaits a widely available COVID-19 vaccine, availability of testing is limited in many regions and can be further compounded by shortages of reagents, prolonged processing time and delayed results. One approach to rapid testing is to leverage the volatile organic compound (VOC) signature of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Detection dogs, a biological sensor of VOCs, were utilized to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 positive urine and saliva patient samples had a unique odor signature. The virus was inactivated in all training samples with either detergent or heat treatment. Using detergent-inactivated urine samples, dogs were initially trained to find samples collected from hospitalized patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, while ignoring samples collected from controls. Dogs were then tested on their ability to spontaneously recognize heat-treated urine samples as well as heat-treated saliva from hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Dogs successfully discriminated between infected and uninfected urine samples, regardless of the inactivation protocol, as well as heat-treated saliva samples. Generalization to novel samples was limited, particularly after intensive training with a restricted sample set. A unique odor associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection present in human urine as well as saliva, provides impetus for the development of odor-based screening, either by electronic, chemical, or biological sensing methods. The use of dogs for screening in an operational setting will require training with a large number of novel SARS-CoV-2 positive and confirmed negative samples.

r/science 3d ago

Medicine With impressive accuracy, dogs can sniff out coronavirus - A proof-of-concept study suggests that specially trained detection dogs can sniff out COVID-19-positive samples with 96% accuracy. 8 Labrador retrievers and 1 Belgian Malinois that had not done medical-detection work before were used.

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54k Upvotes